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From Justice to Jeopardy

Written by Dr. Danielle J. Duperret


I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America,

And to the Republic for which it stands,

One Nation under God,


With liberty and justice for all.

How many times have you recited this pledge? Generally, American children start their school day with the Pledge of Allegiance. A school year contains about 180 days of school; most children go to school for 12 years, which means that the pledge is uttered some 2,160 times, not counting preschool, college, sport events, and special occasions.

Repeat: … and justice for all… and justice for all… and justice for all… and justice for all…

When something is repeated over and over, we start to believe it, i.e. that indeed, justice is for all.

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